Leydig cell tumour in children; A case report and literature review

Document Type: Case Report


1 Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Clinical Research Development Unit (CRDU) of Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Research Institute for Children’s Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Leydig cell tumours (LCTs) comprising of 1 to 3 per cent of testicular cancers in children, one of the single most common symptom in prepubertal patients is painless testicular swelling with or without a sign of precocious puberty. Other symptoms depend on age and the type of tumour. The tumour is usually asymptomatic If secrets androgens, can cause precocious puberty in young children. If the tumour secretes estrogens it can cause rarely gynecomastia in young boys. In adults, also this causes several problems including gynecomastia, sexual dysfunction, infertility, feminine hair distribution, gonadal atrophy, and reduced sex drive. Other causes of precocious puberty include central precocious puberty, hormone exposure from the environment, problems with adrenal gland such as adrenocortical carcinoma, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) should be excluded in all cases. In the presence of a testicular mass, a Leydig cell tumour is the most likely diagnosis. Pathological studies, especially Immunohistochemistry (IHC), plays a great role in differentiating this tumour from other malignancies. Here we are reporting pure LCTs in a ten-year-old boy presented with gynecomastia.